CULTIVATION AND IMPORTANCE
- It is a non-tuberiferous species of solanum. In India, it would have unfolded to African and European countries. It is most important vegetable in plains regions of India and nearly available at some point of the yr. 8% of overall location beneath greens inside u . S . A.
Is occupied by way of brinjal. Solanum auriculatum is resistant to little leaf.
Importance and Nutritive value :
Brinjal is a stable vegetable excessive in nutritive price. It is wealthy in minerals is Ca, Mg, P, K, and Fe. It is also a good source of Vitamin A and C. Bitterness in Brinjal is because of the presence of glycoalkaloids. Glycoalkaloids content material varies from 0.Four to zero.Five mg per 100 g of sparkling weight.
Purple variety has better copper content material and polyphenol oxidase hobby in which iron and catalase activity is the best in the green cultivars. Amino acid content is higher in the crimson range.
Used as cooked vegetables. Used in pickle making, dehydration enterprise. The fruit is employed as a cure for toothache. Excellent treatment those stricken by liver court cases.
Green leaves of brinjal plants are suitable appetizers, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. It was additionally useful in vaata and kapha. In Unani gadget roots are used to relieve ache.
Based on growth addiction brinjal can be labeled as beneath:
i) Solanum melongena var esculentum; fruit is long, round and oval.
- ii) Solanum melongena var serpentine known as snake brinjal. The fruit is extraordinarily long. Leaves are prickly.
iii) Solanum melongena var depressum: plant is extensively short and
Classification on the basis of fruit shape:
- i) Pusa purple long (PPL): long brinjal
- ii) round brinjal – pusa purple round
iii) oval brinjal – pusa kranti.
Classification on the basis of fruit color:
Purple brinjal: they have no anthocyanins. Eg: PPL.
Green brinjal: more of chlorophyll. Eg: Arka kusumakar.
Leaves are alternate, solitary, flowers are stalked, leaf oppressed. The calyx is five-lobed, the corolla is gamopetalous, the fruit is berry and berries are variable in shape and color.
Short styled flowers: they have rudimentary ovary.
Pseudo short-styled flowers: ovary is rudimentary. The style should be shorter than the anther.
- Long fruit varieties: ex. Pusa purple long: evolved as a selection from mixed bacteria. Pusa purple cluster long: is an early maturing variety.
- Long green varieties: arka kusumakar, arka shirish, Krishna nagar green long.
- Round purple: ex: Pusa purple round: is resistant to fruit borer and little leaf of brinjal. Selection-6, suphala, Arka navaneet, krishnanagar purple round, Pant ritu raj, vijaya hybrid, shyamala.
- Round green: banarasi gaint, round striped.
- Roundish white: some varieties under this group have purplish tinge with white stripes. Ex: Manjeri, Visali.
- Oval or Oblong fruited varieties: Junagad oblong, Bhagyamati, H4., Pusa Anmol (Pusa Anmol is a hybrid variety between Pusa purple long and hyderpur).
- Cluster fruited varieties: fruits born in cluster. Ex: pusa purple cluster, arka kusumakar, Bhagyamathi (APAU variety).
- Spiny varieties: H-4, Manjeri.
1 Pusa Anmol Pusa purple long X Hyderpur
2 Arka Navaneet IIHR22-1 X Supreme
Brinjal is the warm-season crop. It is susceptible to severe frost. It requires a long warm season, before fruit maturity. Optimum temperature is 22 to 33 0 C. Late round varieties are more tolerant to frost than early long varieties.
The ideal soils should be deep, fertile and well-drained. The pH should be no more than 5.5 to 6 for better growth and development. Light soils are good for a healthy crop but heavy soils are suited for higher yields.
Time of sowing:
In plains crop is grown in three seasons, summer crop is sown during February – March and Rabi crop is October to November. In hills, a seed is sown in April-May and the seedlings transplanted in May-June
- Seed rate: seed rate varies from 375 to 500 g per hectare.
- Nursery practices: nursery practices are almost similar to Tomato.
In case of open-pollinated variety 200 to 500 Q per ha. Hybrids 300 to 700 Q per ha
- Grading: three categories
- super 2. fancy 3. commercial.
- Packing: fruits are packed loosely in gunny bags, net bags, wooden trays, and bamboo baskets.