Antennae are a pair of sensory preoral appendages arising from the 2d or antennal section of the top owning nerves coming from deutocerebrum of the mind.
They are properly evolved in adults and poorly advanced in immature stages. Antennae are absent so as protura and sophistication Arachnida while 2 pairs of antenna (antennules) are found in class Crustacea.
These are stated to be uniramous (unbranched), segmented and mobile systems which might be basally constant in to deep antennal socket (antennifer). Antennal socket is supplied with an antennal suture.
The base of socket is hooked up to the threshold of the socket by an articulatory membrane. This lets in unfastened motion of antennae.
Antenna includes three elements :
1)Scape : It is the primary section of antenna. It articulates with the pinnacle tablet via antennifer which offers motion for the scape.
2) Pedicel : It is the second or center phase of antenna that paperwork a joint between scape and flagellum. It includes the unique auditory organ known as “Jhonston’s organ”.
3) Flagellum : It is the final antennal phase which consists of many segments that varies in form and size.
Example of modifications:
Type of antennae
|1||Filiform (Thread like)eg. Grasshopper|
|2||Setaceous(Whip/ bristle like) eg.Cockroach|
|3||Moniliform (Like string of beads)eg.Termite|
|4||Pectinate (Comb like) eg.|
|5||Bipectinate (Double comb) eg. Silk worm|
|6||Serrate(Saw like) eg.Pulse beetle, jewel beetles|
|7||Clavate (Clubbed)eg. Butterflies Segments|
|8||Clavate with hook(clubbed antennae with hook) eg.Skipper butterflies|
|9||Capitate (Clubbed with knob)|
eg.Red flour beetle
|10||Geniculate (Elbowed) eg.Ants, honey bees|
|11||Lamellate (plate like) eg.Rhinoceros beetles, dung rollers, chaffer beetles|
|12||Flabellate (feather like) eg.stylopids|
|13||Plumose(brush like with dense hairs)|
|14||Pilose (brush like with sparse hairs)|
|15||Aristate (antennae with arista)|
|16||Stylate (antennae with style)|