The body wall or integument of insects forms an exoskeletal protecting of the insect frame. It is composite structure which forms the skeleton of the insect body. Its provide safety from desiccation muscle attachment,physical injury etc.
Integument includes three layers.
1. Inner basement membrane
2. Middle dermis (or) hypodermis
1. Basement membrane:
It is the basal a part of the body wall fashioned from degenerated epidermal cells and seem as non-living amorphous (shapeless) granular layer of integument.
Unicellular layer which formed from polygonal cells.These cells includes nicely advanced nucleus and different cytoplasmic contents.
a) dermal glands producing cement layer
b) trichogen cellular generating hair like seta or trichome.
c) moulting glands secreting moulting fluid which digests the old cuticle
It is outermost thick layer of integument
A) Upper epicuticle B) Inner procuticle
It is a skinny outermost layer varying in thickness from 1-4µ. Chitin is absent in epicuticle. It consists of the subsequent 4 layers.
1. Cement layer : It is secreted by means of dermal glands
2. Wax layer: It is prominent layer , 0.25µ in thickness, which include lengthy chain hydrocarbons. It serves as water proof layer preventing water loss from the body
3.Polyphenol layer: It is a non-static layer containing numerous forms of phenols which might be particularly used in the formation of the proteins It is proof against acids and natural solvents
4. Cuticulin layer: It is an amber colored skinny layer over the surface of the dermis . Provide permeability and barrier for external materials.
Exocuticle has dark pigment ,sclerotized and hard.presence of special chitin and hard protein known as sclerotin..
it is a smooth, mild coloured and un-sclerotized presence of chitin and lack of sclerotin.
Pore canals: These are numerous fine vertical channels traversing each exo and endocuticle measuring < 1µ (0.1 – 0.15µ) in diameter. They are beneficial in the transportation of cuticular cloth and enzymes to the outer pro and epicuticle parts.