Seed And their Types

JRF Plant Science

Seed And their Types


• Botanically seed is a fertilized ovule consisting of intact embryo, stored food and seed coat which is viable and has got the capacity to germinate.

  • Indian seed act passed in: 1966
  • National Seed Corporation in: 1963

Types of pure seeds:

A. Breeder/nucleus seed:

• Such seed are produced directly under the supervision of plant breeder. It possessed all the required genetic characters and 99.9% genetically pure.

• Breeder seed is used to produce foundation seed. • It has golden yellow colored tag.

B. Foundation seed:

• It’s progeny of breeder seed.Known as mother seed and it is the source of registered and certified seed classes.

• It is genetically 99.9%% pure. However, physical purity of 98% is permissible.

• Production of foundation seed is the responsibility of national corporation.

• It is produced on government farms, at experiment stations, apiculture universities or

on cultivator’s field under strict supervision of research scientists and expert from seed certification agencies (SCA).

• White tag is denotes for foundation seed.

C. Registered seed:


• Produced from Foundation seed or registered seed itself.It has satisfactory genetic identity and purity.

• it is generally omitted and certified seed is produced directly from foundation seed.It has purple/orange tag.

D. Certified seed:

• Progeny of registered seed, foundation seed or Certified seed itself.

• It has satisfactory genetic identity and purity. Approved and certified by state seed certifying agency

• It denoted by blue tag.

• It is available for general distribution to farmers for commercial crop production.

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