What is Fungicides ? and their Types

Article Plant Science

What is Fungicides ? and their Types

Fungicides: are chemicals used to kill fungi.

Types :

1. Sulphur fungicides:

• Two main groups:

a. Elemental sulphur: is used as dust and wettable powder

b. Lime sulphur: is used as dormant spray

• Sulphur fungicides are effective against powdery mildews.

2. Copper compound fungicides:

a. Copper sulphate: • It was first discovered by Prevost .1807 and used against bunt of wheat.

b. Bordeaux mixture: • PME Millardet Prof. of botany at Bordeaux in France (1885) discovered Bordeaux mixture from the mixture of copper sulphate and lime.

• It was used against downy mildew of grapes • Composition = Copper sulphate + lime + water (5: 5: 50: ratio).

c. Burgundy mixture: 1887 • In this mixture lime is replaced by sodium carbonate or washing soda. (ARS-I0)

• Burgundy mixture: Copper sulphate + sodium  + water (5:6:50)

3. Thiocarbonate fungicides:

It is an important component in the structural form of Thiocarbonate fungicides.
a. Thiram • It is physically used as a seed protectant
b. Ziram: • It is zinc containing Fungicide.
• It contains both zinc and Mn. • Best and widely used fungicide   

c. Vapam/Metham-sodium: • It is soil fungicides.
• Used as soil sterilient for fungicides, nematodes and herbicides.

4. Systemic fungicides:

a. Oxathiin: • The first systemic fungicide Carboxin was developed by Von Schmeling and Kulka in 1966.

(i) Carboxin/DMO: • Trade name is Vitavax. • Used against smuts and rusts • Especially is used against loose smut of wheat and Rhyzocionia disease of cotton.

(ii) Oxycarboxin: • Trade namePlantvax • used against rusts of wheat • It can be used in controlling disease imperfecti.

5. Benzimidazoles: • It comes under the name of Benomyl or Bavistin.

• It is a superior systemic fungicide which acts good eradicate and protectant.

What is Fungicides ? and their Types

6. Phenylamides: • Metalaxyl M was the superior fungicides introduced in 1977. • Active on synthesis.

7. Organo-mercurial fungicides:

• Because of its high toxicity it is not used to control plant diseases.

• E.g. Agrosan GN, Aretan, Ceresan, Agallol.

8. Other fungicides:

a. Captan: • Seed treatment and soil drenching @ 0.5 protection against damping off

b. Karathane: oomycetous fungirelated to fungi as and it inhibit rRNA.

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