What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Components

Article Entomology

 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM:  IPM is a broad ecological approach that minimizes pest population below ETL through utilizing most of or all the suitable techniques like cultural, physical, mechanical, biological & chemical methods in a compatible manner.

Components of IPM or common methods of pest management:

1. Cultural methods: (it includes certain cultural practices viz.)

a. Crop rotation: ✓ Effective against limited host range and relatively immobile in some stages of their development.

b. Deep ploughing: ✓ The resting stages of soil dwelling insects, weeds and pathogen are destroyed by summer deep ploughing

c. Clean cultivation: ✓ Field sanitation and destroy plant debris of previous crop.

Use of trap crop: ✓ Grow trap crops around the main crop to attract the pest of main crop and then easily destroyed through spraying any effective pesticides. 

Ex.sowing okra in cotton crop as a trap crop for boll worms, castor in soyabean for spodoptera and mustard in cabbage for DBM.

e. Pruning and thinning: • Infected parts should be pruned out.

✓ Thinning for vigour of plants.

f. Resistant plant varieties:  ✓ E.g. In rice,CoRH-1: BPH and gall midge resistant

• Suraksha: gall midge resistance

2. Mechanical method:

a. Hand picking: ✓ Large sized insects i.e. caterpillars, bugs, and beetles are hand picked and destroyed.

b. Shaking and beating of branches: • Done by hands or mechanically to drop larvae & eggs of insects from plants.

c. Banding: • Prevent climbing pests e.g. mango mealy bug d. Wire gauge screen: • Protects fruits from borer

e. Trench digging: ✓ Against nymphs of locust and larvae of red hairy

f. Trapping: ✓ Various type traps are used eg. light trap, bait trap, sticky trap, pheromone trap and sound trap etc. g. Flooding and draining: • To destroy soil dwelling insects.

 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

3. Physical method: ✓ Involve manipulation of temperature, humidity & use ofradiations. Flame throwers against grass hoppers
✓ drying of grains at minimum moisture level to reduce storage pests infestation. • e.g.in cereals should be kept at moisture level < 12 % for safe storage.

✓ In oil seeds moisture level  at least 8 % for safe storage

4. Legal control: I Adopted various quarantine measures at various frontier area of country. ,/ Domestic quarantine also adopted for some insect -pests.

5. Biological control: Definition: • The utilization of parasitoids, predators and pathogens for the regulation of host population density is called as biological control.

a. Parasitoid:

• A parasitoid is a special kind of parasite which is often about the same size as its host, kills its host and requires only one host for developing into a free living adult. Examples of some parasitoids:

• Egg parasitoid: Trichogramma spp.and Larval parasitoid: Campoletis chloridae, Cotesia spp., Bracon hebetor etc.

• Majority of parasitoids utilized in biological control of insect pest belong to two orders are Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonoidea and Proctotrupoidea) andDiptera (Tachnid flies).

 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

b. Predator:

• Predator is a free living organism throughout life and usually larger in size and for their development kill on or more prey.

Ex. Lady Bird Beetle (Coccinella septumpuctata), lace wing (Chrysoperla carnea), syrphid fly etc.

Classical control:

• The searching, importing, colonizing and dispersal of a natural enemy in to an area where they don’t already exist for the suppression of pest population.

c. Microbial control: stern hauns, 1949. • The control of pests by the use of micro organisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsia and nematode or their by products are known as microbial control.

6. Genetic control: 1. Sterile insect control 2. Sterile insect release methods.

7. Chemical control: Use Of various types of insecticides.

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